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They are very adept in hunting in their respective environments. Since owls can be found in nearly all parts of the world and across a multitude of ecosystems, their hunting skills and characteristics vary slightly from species to species, though most characteristics are shared among all species.

Most owls share an innate ability to fly almost silently and also more slowly in comparison to other birds of prey.

Most owls live a mainly nocturnal lifestyle and being able to fly without making any noise gives them a strong advantage over their prey that are listening for the slightest sound in the night.

A silent, slow flight is not as necessary for diurnal and crepuscular owls given that prey can usually see an owl approaching.

While the morphological and biological mechanisms of this silent flight are more or less unknown, the structure of the feather has been heavily studied and accredited to a large portion of why they have this ability.

The serrations are more likely reducing aerodynamic disturbances, rather than simply reducing noise. It also allows the owl to monitor the sound output from its flight pattern.

The feather adaption that allows silent flight means that barn owl feathers are not waterproof. To retain the softness and silent flight, the barn owl cannot use the preen oil or powder dust that other species use for waterproofing.

In wet weather, they cannot hunt and this may be disastrous during the breeding season. Barn owls are frequently found drowned in cattle drinking troughs, since they land to drink and bathe, but are unable to climb out.

Owls can struggle to keep warm, because of their lack of waterproofing, so large numbers of downy feathers help them to retain body heat.

Eyesight is a particular characteristic of the owl that aids in nocturnal prey capture. Owls are part of a small group of birds that live nocturnally, but do not use echolocation to guide them in flight in low-light situations.

Owls are known for their disproportionally large eyes in comparison to their skulls. An apparent consequence of the evolution of an absolutely large eye in a relatively small skull is that the eye of the owl has become tubular in shape.

This shape is found in other so-called nocturnal eyes, such as the eyes of strepsirrhine primates and bathypelagic fishes. Owls are regarded as having the most frontally placed eyes among all avian groups, which gives them some of the largest binocular fields of vision.

However, owls are farsighted and cannot focus on objects within a few centimeters of their eyes. These mechanisms are only able to function due to the large-sized retinal image.

Owls exhibit specialized hearing functions and ear shapes that also aid in hunting. They are noted for asymmetrical ear placements on the skull in some genera.

Owls can have either internal or external ears, both of which are asymmetrical. Asymmetry has not been reported to extend to the middle or internal ear of the owl.

Asymmetrical ear placement on the skull allows the owl to pinpoint the location of its prey. This is especially true for strictly nocturnal species such as the barn owls Tyto or Tengmalm's owl.

This time difference between ears is a matter of about 0. Behind the ear openings are modified, dense feathers, densely packed to form a facial ruff, which creates an anterior-facing, concave wall that cups the sound into the ear structure.

The facial disk also acts to direct sound into the ears, and a downward-facing, sharply triangular beak minimizes sound reflection away from the face.

The shape of the facial disk is adjustable at will to focus sounds more effectively. The prominences above a great horned owl's head are commonly mistaken as its ears.

This is not the case; they are merely feather tufts. The ears are on the sides of the head in the usual location in two different locations as described above.

While the auditory and visual capabilities of the owl allow it to locate and pursue its prey, the talons and beak of the owl do the final work.

The owl kills its prey using these talons to crush the skull and knead the body. The masked owl has some of the proportionally longest talons of any bird of prey; they appear enormous in comparison to the body when fully extended to grasp prey.

The family Tytonidae has inner and central toes of about equal length, while the family Strigidae has an inner toe that is distinctly shorter than the central one.

The beak of the owl is short, curved, and downward-facing, and typically hooked at the tip for gripping and tearing its prey. Once prey is captured, the scissor motion of the top and lower bill is used to tear the tissue and kill.

The sharp lower edge of the upper bill works in coordination with the sharp upper edge of the lower bill to deliver this motion. Owls tend to mimic the colorations and sometimes even the texture patterns of their surroundings, the common barn owl being an exception.

Nyctea scandiaca , or the snowy owl , appears nearly bleach-white in color with a few flecks of black, mimicking their snowy surroundings perfectly.

Likewise, the mottled wood-owl Strix ocellata displays shades of brown, tan, and black, making the owl nearly invisible in the surrounding trees, especially from behind.

Usually, the only tell-tale sign of a perched owl is its vocalizations or its vividly colored eyes.

Most owls are nocturnal , actively hunting their prey in darkness. Several types of owls, however, are crepuscular —active during the twilight hours of dawn and dusk; one example is the pygmy owl Glaucidium.

A few owls are active during the day, also; examples are the burrowing owl Speotyto cunicularia and the short-eared owl Asio flammeus.

Much of the owls' hunting strategy depends on stealth and surprise. Owls have at least two adaptations that aid them in achieving stealth.

First, the dull coloration of their feathers can render them almost invisible under certain conditions.

Secondly, serrated edges on the leading edge of owls' remiges muffle an owl's wing beats, allowing an owl's flight to be practically silent.

Some fish-eating owls, for which silence has no evolutionary advantage, lack this adaptation. An owl's sharp beak and powerful talons allow it to kill its prey before swallowing it whole if it is not too big.

Scientists studying the diets of owls are helped by their habit of regurgitating the indigestible parts of their prey such as bones, scales, and fur in the form of pellets.

These "owl pellets" are plentiful and easy to interpret, and are often sold by companies to schools for dissection by students as a lesson in biology and ecology.

Owl eggs typically have a white colour and an almost spherical shape, and range in number from a few to a dozen, depending on species and the particular season; for most, three or four is the more common number.

In at least one species, female owls do not mate with the same male for a lifetime. Female burrowing owls commonly travel and find other mates, while the male stays in his territory and mates with other females.

The systematic placement of owls is disputed. For example, the Sibley—Ahlquist taxonomy of birds finds that, based on DNA-DNA hybridization , owls are more closely related to the nightjars and their allies Caprimulgiformes than to the diurnal predators in the order Falconiformes ; consequently, the Caprimulgiformes are placed in the Strigiformes, and the owls in general become a family, the Strigidae.

A recent study indicates that the drastic rearrangement of the genome of the accipitrids may have obscured any close relationship of theirs with groups such as the owls.

Some to extant species of owls are known, subdivided into two families: Typical owls or True owl family Strigidae and 2.

Some entirely extinct families have also been erected based on fossil remains; these differ much from modern owls in being less specialized or specialized in a very different way such as the terrestrial Sophiornithidae.

The Paleocene genera Berruornis and Ogygoptynx show that owls were already present as a distinct lineage some 60—57 million years ago Mya , hence, possibly also some 5 million years earlier, at the extinction of the nonavian dinosaurs.

This makes them one of the oldest known groups of non- Galloanserae landbirds. The supposed " Cretaceous owls" Bradycneme and Heptasteornis are apparently non avialan maniraptors.

During the Paleogene , the Strigiformes radiated into ecological niches now mostly filled by other groups of birds. By the early Neogene , the other lineages had been displaced by other bird orders, leaving only barn-owls and typical owls.

The latter at that time were usually a fairly generic type of probably earless owls similar to today's North American spotted owl or the European tawny owl ; the diversity in size and ecology found in typical owls today developed only subsequently.

Around the Paleogene-Neogene boundary some 25 Mya , barn-owls were the dominant group of owls in southern Europe and adjacent Asia at least; the distribution of fossil and present-day owl lineages indicates that their decline is contemporary with the evolution of the different major lineages of typical owls, which for the most part seems to have taken place in Eurasia.

In the Americas, rather an expansion of immigrant lineages of ancestral typical owls occurred. The supposed fossil herons "Ardea" perplexa Middle Miocene of Sansan, France and "Ardea" lignitum Late Pliocene of Germany were more probably owls; the latter was apparently close to the modern genus Bubo.

Judging from this, the Late Miocene remains from France described as "Ardea" aureliensis should also be restudied. The taxa often united under Strigogyps [29] were formerly placed in part with the owls, specifically the Sophiornithidae; they appear to be Ameghinornithidae instead.

For fossil species and paleosubspecies of extant taxa , see the genus and species articles. Among the Kikuyu of Kenya , it was believed that owls were harbingers of death.

If one saw an owl or heard its hoot, someone was going to die. In general, owls are viewed as harbingers of bad luck, ill health, or death.

The belief is widespread even today. In Mongolia the owl is regarded as a benign omen. For example, the great warlord Genghis Khan was hiding from enemies in a small coppice.

An owl roosted in the tree above him, which caused his pursuers to think no man could be hidden there.

In modern Japan, owls are regarded as lucky and are carried in the form of a talisman or charm. The modern West generally associates owls with wisdom and vigilance.

This link goes back at least as far as Ancient Greece , where Athens , noted for art and scholarship, and Athena , Athens' patron goddess and the goddess of wisdom, had the owl as a symbol.

Thiselton-Dyer in his Folk-lore of Shakespeare says that "from the earliest period it has been considered a bird of ill-omen," and Pliny tells us how, on one occasion, even Rome itself underwent a lustration , because one of them strayed into the Capitol.

He represents it also as a funereal bird, a monster of the night, the very abomination of human kind.

Virgil describes its death-howl from the top of the temple by night, a circumstance introduced as a precursor of Dido 's death. Ovid , too, constantly speaks of this bird's presence as an evil omen; and indeed the same notions respecting it may be found among the writings of most of the ancient poets.

In Hinduism , an owl is the vahana , mount, of the Goddess Lakshmi. People often allude to the reputation of owls as bearers of supernatural danger when they tell misbehaving children, "the owls will get you", [43] and in most Native American folklore, owls are a symbol of death.

Encouraging natural predators to control rodent population is a natural form of pest control, along with excluding food sources for rodents.

There is a long history of ontological development in philosophy and computer science. Since the s, a number of research efforts have explored how the idea of knowledge representation KR from artificial intelligence AI could be made useful on the World Wide Web.

The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries.

As of Monday, the 31st of May, our working group will officially come to an end. We have achieved all that we were chartered to do, and I believe our work is being quite well appreciated.

In , at the OWL Experiences And Directions Workshop a consensus formed that recent advances in description logic would allow a more expressive revision to satisfy user requirements more comprehensively whilst retaining good computational properties.

In December , the OWL1. In April , this group decided to call this new language OWL2, indicating a substantial revision.

OWL 2 introduces profiles to improve scalability in typical applications. OWL was chosen as an easily pronounced acronym that would yield good logos, suggest wisdom, and honor William A.

Martin 's One World Language knowledge representation project from the s. A survey of ontologies available on the web collected OWL ontologies.

They found that 19 ontologies had in excess of 2, classes, and that 6 had more than 10, The same survey collected RDFS vocabularies.

The data described by an ontology in the OWL family is interpreted as a set of "individuals" and a set of "property assertions" which relate these individuals to each other.

An ontology consists of a set of axioms which place constraints on sets of individuals called "classes" and the types of relationships permitted between them.

These axioms provide semantics by allowing systems to infer additional information based on the data explicitly provided. OWL ontologies can import other ontologies, adding information from the imported ontology to the current ontology.

An ontology describing families might include axioms stating that a "hasMother" property is only present between two individuals when "hasParent" is also present, and that individuals of class "HasTypeOBlood" are never related via "hasParent" to members of the "HasTypeABBlood" class.

Each of these sublanguages is a syntactic extension of its simpler predecessor. The following set of relations hold.

Their inverses do not. OWL Lite was originally intended to support those users primarily needing a classification hierarchy and simple constraints.

For example, while it supports cardinality constraints, it only permits cardinality values of 0 or 1. It was hoped that it would be simpler to provide tool support for OWL Lite than its more expressive relatives, allowing quick migration path for systems using thesauri and other taxonomies.

In practice, however, most of the expressiveness constraints placed on OWL Lite amount to little more than syntactic inconveniences: OWL DL includes all OWL language constructs, but they can be used only under certain restrictions for example, number restrictions may not be placed upon properties which are declared to be transitive.

OWL DL is so named due to its correspondence with description logic , a field of research that has studied the logics that form the formal foundation of OWL.

OWL Full is undecidable, so no reasoning software is able to perform complete reasoning for it. In OWL 2, there are three sublanguages of the language.

The OWL family of languages supports a variety of syntaxes. It is useful to distinguish high level syntaxes aimed at specification from exchange syntaxes more suitable for general use.

This high level syntax is used to specify the OWL ontology structure and semantics. The OWL abstract syntax presents an ontology as a sequence of annotations , axioms and facts.

Annotations carry machine and human oriented meta-data. Information about the classes, properties and individuals that compose the ontology is contained in axioms and facts only.

Each class, property and individual is either anonymous or identified by an URI reference. Facts state data either about an individual or about a pair of individual identifiers that the objects identified are distinct or the same.

Axioms specify the characteristics of classes and properties. Sean Bechhofer, et al. They conclude that the name abstract syntax may be somewhat misleading.

This syntax closely follows the structure of an OWL2 ontology. It is used by OWL2 to specify semantics, mappings to exchange syntaxes and profiles.

Several RDF serialization formats have been devised. Each leads to a syntax for languages in the OWL family through this mapping. The Manchester Syntax is a compact, human readable syntax with a style close to frame languages.

Consider an ontology for tea based on a Tea class. First, an ontology identifier is needed. This example provides a sense of the syntax. To save space below, preambles and prefix definitions have been skipped.

In the beginning, IS-A was quite simple. Today, however, there are almost as many meanings for this inheritance link as there are knowledge-representation systems.

Early attempts to build large ontologies were plagued by a lack of clear definitions. Members of the OWL family have model theoretic formal semantics, and so have strong logical foundations.

Description logics are a family of logics that are decidable fragments of first-order logic with attractive and well-understood computational properties.

The languages in the OWL family use the open world assumption. Under the open world assumption, if a statement cannot be proven to be true with current knowledge, we cannot draw the conclusion that the statement is false.

A relational database consists of sets of tuples with the same attributes. SQL is a query and management language for relational databases.

Prolog is a logical programming language. Both use the closed world assumption. Languages in the OWL family are capable of creating classes, properties, defining instances and its operations.

A class is a collection of objects. A class may contain individuals, instances of the class. A class may have any number of instances.



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